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Fidel Medvedev
Fidel Medvedev

Parliament - Presence Of A Brain |VERIFIED|


In the 1730s, England founded the last of its colonies in North America. The project was the brain child of James Oglethorpe, a former army officer. After Oglethorpe left the army, he devoted himself to helping the poor and debt-ridden people of London, whom he suggested settling in America. His choice of Georgia, named for the new King, was also motivated by the idea of creating a defensive buffer for South Carolina, an increasingly important colony with many potential enemies close by. These enemies included the Spanish in Florida, the French in Louisiana and along the Mississippi River, and these powers' Indian allies throughout the region.




Parliament - Presence Of A Brain



How can the brain learn from experiences, and at the same time be stable enough to retain memories for decades? How does mental capacity change throughout life? What effect does dementia have on multilingual persons? At the seminar we will look more deeply into these questions.


The year of the brain is coming to an end. Researchers at UiO undertake several different approaches to find out more about the mechanisms underlying the activity of the brain both in the absence and presence of different diseases that affects the brain.


Effect of NOS inhibitors on AT1-NAD(P)H pathway in young (a) and adult (b) Wistar rats. Expression of mRNA of AT1R and, p22phox subunits of NAD(P)H oxidase was normalized on expression of GAPDH in brain stem. Data represent mean std. dev., *P


Effect of NOS inhibitors on expression of SOD isoforms in young (a) and adult (b) Wistar rats. Expression of individual SOD isoforms were normalized to expression of GAPDH in the brain stem . Data represent mean std. dev.. *P


Effect of NOS inhibitors on multidrug resistance of young (a) and adult (b) Wistar rats. Expression of multidrug resistance MDR1a gene was normalized on expression of GAPDH in the brain stem . Data represent mean std.dev.. *P


The Parliament of India is a bicameral legislature composed of President of India and consists of the two houses: the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. The legislative proposals are brought in the form of bills here and it becomes an act when passed by both the houses of parliament and approved by the President of India. Parliament House is also known as Sansad Bhavan which is located in Delhi. Let us study more about Parliamentary system through this quiz.


Explanation: features of parliamentary system are: Dual Executive, majority party rule, collective responsibility, political homogeneity, double membership, leadership of Prime Minister, dissolution of lower and house fusion of power.


In July, Musk announced that he's hoping to implant the first Neuralink brain-tech connection system into a human before the end of 2020, to "achieve a sort of symbiosis with artificial intelligence."


Neuralink is one of Musk's lesser-known projects. Launched in 2016, more than a decade after both SpaceX and Tesla were up and running, the company's aim is to develop brain-machine interfaces using implantable parts that could stimulate or observe and record brain functions.


With the aid of a brain interface system, implanted discreetly behind the ear, perhaps we could process multiple streams of information at the same time, or even speed up cognition. It's a similar concept to one the US military is working on with a tiny device at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA.


"It's not like there's a small number of neurons sitting in this part of my cortex and if only we could route information around them or bypass them or turn them off, you're going to fix the problem," he said. "Many brain diseases have a very specific genetic defect or multiple genetic defects. And there's a very biological basis for the problem."


If implanted into the brains of people with conditions like schizophrenia or autism, Neuralink devices could help us learn more about those conditions, and develop some novel treatments, Bruno suggested.


In his own lab, scientists are using brain interface devices on mice, and learning more about the outer two inches of the mammalian brain, where people and animals do a lot of pattern recognition and problem-solving.


Musk mentioned earlier this year that Neuralink had already succeeded in getting a monkey to "control a computer with its brain," which is not an entirely new feat, but speaks to how Neuralink might work.


Bruno says he's excited that a private company is developing brain interfacing devices. But implanting hardware into people's heads is risky, no matter how small the devices may be. Bruno disputes Musk's suggestion that getting a Neuralink implant would be "sort of a Lasik type of thing." (As in, minimally invasive and very safe.)


"If you talk to any neurosurgeon, they will tell you that they would only undertake brain surgery of any kind if it was absolutely essential," Bruno said. "It's one thing to imagine our research lab losing some small percentage of mice to surgical complications. It's another thing if you say we're going to lose a small percentage of human patients, right?"


This study examined the prevalence of risky drinking by members of parliament (MPs), as well as the relationship between risky drinking and age, years spent as an MP, working outside parliament, awareness of the Parliamentary Health and Wellbeing Service, and probable mental ill health.


Alcohol use among civil servants has been studied extensively in the Whitehall studies that explored social determinants of health, with clear findings of adverse effects on cardiovascular6 and cognitive7 function associated with drinking at levels above recommended guidelines. Although high workloads, job stress and using alcohol to unwind after work are known to be associated with risky drinking,8 this has so far not been studied in UK parliamentarians.


The principal research question of this study was: (1) What is the prevalence of risky (hazardous, harmful, dependent) drinking among MPs? The secondary questions were: (2) Do MPs who work outside parliament have an increased probability of risky drinking than those who do not? (3) Do older MPs (>50 years old) have an increased probability of risky drinking compared with their younger counterparts? (3) Are more years served as an MP (>16 years) associated with greater risky drinking? (4) Do MPs with probable mental ill health have a higher probability of risky drinking? (5) Are MPs with risky drinking less aware of the Parliamentary Health and Wellbeing service?


We conducted an anonymised, online self-completed survey at the House of Commons in December 2016. The inclusion criteria for participation were: membership of the 56th UK Parliament, House of Commons and providing written, informed consent. We followed the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) guidelines for observational studies for the reporting of this cross-sectional study.11 No age limits were defined, except that to be elected to parliament one must be over 18 years old. Initially, in November 2016 a letter was sent to all 650 members of the House of Commons to make them aware of the study. In early December, a letter including a web link to an online survey with an individual access code was sent out to all MPs via internal post, and via email. The survey took place between 5 and 31 December 2016. Repeated efforts were taken to promote participation and maximise response rates in the survey. The study information sheet (explaining the purpose of the study) and instructions for the online questionnaire, as well as two reminder emails, were sent out with clear descriptions of encrypted data collection and protection measures to ensure anonymity.


MPs were also asked if they were aware of the mental health and wellbeing support provided by the Parliamentary Health and Wellbeing service. Ethnicity was not assessed. We also assessed if the MP had a job outside the parliament and the years serving as an MP. Owing to the low number of MPs from a minority ethnic background in the 56th House of Commons (n=41), this avoided any concern about the identification of participants, which may have further limited the response rate.


We compared (1) each item of the AUDIT, and (2) the total score of the AUDIT derived from the combined categories that indicate the presence of risky drinking of the MP sample, with a range of sociodemographic groups (the English population (EN), corporate managers (CM), all managers (AM), and with high income groups (HIG) in England) derived from APMS 2014.


Differences between the sample group and the MP group as a whole for time were examined for time served as an MP, age and sex of an MP, presence of higher education, having a job outside parliament, awareness of the Parliamentary Health and Wellbeing Service, presence of probable mental ill health and risky (hazardous, harmful and dependent) drinking. Risky drinking was also explored as a dependent variable in exploring its association with the other variables listed, using logistic regression models.


Dr Daniel Poulter, MP, was involved at all stages of the study and is co-author of the paper. Other parliamentarians and staff of the Parliamentary Health and Wellbeing Service were consulted at the planning and design stages, as well as at the interpretations of the findings and dissemination stages of the study.


Age-sex standardised prevalence estimates and 95% CIs of UKPMH and of specific population groups of APMS 2014 for the two different categories of AUDIT. AM, all managers (APMS 2014); APMS, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey; AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; CM, corporate managers (APMS 2014); EN, English population (APMS 2014); HIG, high-income group (APMS 2014); MP, member of parliament sample; UKMPH, UK Parliamentary Mental Health.


There were also five secondary questions to be addressed. These were whether risky drinking is more likely: in MPs with a job outside parliament; in MPs aged over 50; in MPs with >16 more years of service; in MPs who were unaware of the Parliamentary Health and Wellbeing Service; and in MPs with probable mental ill health. In multivariable logistic regression models, we did not find an association between risky drinking and age, years served in parliament or awareness of the Parliamentary Health and Wellbeing Service. There was a trend towards risky drinking being more likely in MPs who reported also working outside parliament. However, the strength of evidence for such an association was weak and may have been impacted on by a smaller sample size. Similar results were observed with the presence of probable mental ill health. 041b061a72


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